This page delves into the drivers of long-term economic growth. The top left shows the growth in the working age civilian population in the U.S. over the previous six decades. The chart also shows projections for the next decade, which indicate the U.S. will have fewer and fewer available workers. The bottom left shows growth in investment in structures and equipment each year, which has been shown to be a key driver of productivity growth. Together, these two measures on the left side determine the components of real GDP growth shown in the chart on the right side of the page. Growth in workers and growth in real output per worker equals real GDP growth. While the decline in new workers will be a headwind for long-term growth, productivity increases from the Covid-19 pandemic could boost growth going forward.