On the left, the line chart shows the central bank policy rates of ASEAN economies. Central banks cut their policy rates to support their economies by making borrowing cheaper, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eventually they may need to raise interest rates to prevent inflation accelerating, even though the probability of this happening is relatively low in the near term.
On the right, the lines show the government deficit as a share of GDP. Governments run a fiscal deficit when they spend more than tax revenue. This could be aimed at supporting the economy and protecting the standard of living of the general public. It could also be used for long-term projects, such as building infrastructure, education or health care. Deficits will need to be financed by borrowing.