JPMorgan Global Investment Management EMEA Remuneration Policy
This document sets out the remuneration policy applied to J.P. Morgan’s Global Investment Management business (“GIM”) in EMEA (the “Business”).
The Business is part of the J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. group of companies. In this Policy, the terms "J.P. Morgan" or “Firm” refers to that group, and each of the entities in that group globally, unless otherwise specified.
As part of the Firm, the Business is governed by J.P. Morgan’s global compensation practices and principles. This Policy should therefore be read together with the Firm’s US Proxy Statement* (the “Proxy Statement”).
This Policy sets out general principles. Details of specific remuneration programmes are set forth in the relevant plan terms and conditions as in force from time to time.
To date, there have been no material changes to this Policy in 2016. It was last updated in February 2016.
Governance of remuneration policy
The Firm’s Compensation & Management Development Committee (“CMDC”)
The Firm strongly believes that its remuneration policy and its implementation should foster proper governance and regulatory compliance. That policy is subject to independent oversight and control by the CMDC, a committee of the board of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co, the ultimate parent company of the Firm.
The CMDC is composed entirely of independent directors and met formally 6 times in relation to the 2015 performance year. The CMDC’s charter and current membership can be found on the Firm’s website. Its responsibilities relating to compensation include:
- Defining the Firm’s compensation philosophy
- Reviewing and approving overall incentive compensation pools (including percentage paid in equity/cash)
- Reviewing and approving compensation for our Operating Committee and, for the CEO, making a recommendation to the Board for consideration and ratification by the independent directors
- Reviewing and approving the terms of compensation awards, including recovery/clawback provisions
- Reviewing the Firm’s compensation practices as they relate to risk and control (including the avoidance of practices that encourage excessive risk taking)
- Reviews the compensation awards to Identified Staff (as defined below), including any performance adjustment
- Oversight of the Firm’s Culture and Conduct programmes
The CMDC performs the aforementioned roles on an ongoing basis so that our compensation programme is proactive in addressing both current and emerging challenges. Additionally, each year the CMDC meets with the Risk Policy Committee and the Chief Risk Officer to review the Firm’s compensation programmes with the objective of ensuring that such compensation programmes do not encourage unnecessary or excessive risk-taking.
In addition, we have Control Forums facilitated by Human Resources at the Firm, line-of-business and regional levels (“HR Control Forums”), the outcomes of which, when appropriate, may lead to a recommendation that human resources-related remedial actions be initiated, including but not limited to performance rating and compensation impacts. These processes are discussed below in more detail.
For performance year 2015, the CMDC and Board of Directors elected not to engage the services of a compensation consultant. Instead, the Firm’s Human Resources department provided the CMDC and the Board with both internal and external compensation data and regular updates in an effort to comply with relevant rules and guidance from our regulators and applicable laws.
Our compensation philosophy provides guiding principles that drive compensation-related decision-making across every level of our Firm, including the Business. We believe that well-established and clearly communicated core compensation values drive fairness and consistency across our Firm.
The table below sets forth a summary of our compensation philosophy:
Alignment of pay practices with compensation philosophy
We believe the effectiveness of our compensation programme is dependent upon how well our pay practices are aligned with our compensation philosophy. The table below illustrates the strong alignment between our compensation philosophy and pay practices.
Variable compensation (annual and long-term incentives)
We believe that our variable compensation programmes serve a fundamental role in motivating our employees to deliver sustained shareholder value and rewarding them with an appropriate mix of short- and long-term incentives aligned to performance.
Incentive compensation can be composed of the following:
- Immediate cash
- Retained Stock (vested at grant, subject to a 6 month holding period - only currently awarded to CRD IV Identified Staff)
- Restricted Stock Units (vesting period 24 and 36 months post grant for the majority of staff)
- Deferred cash (awarded to Identified Staff only)
- Mandatory Investor Plan (deferred cash award based on certain notional fund investments, vesting period 24 and 36 months post grant)
Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”)
The equity portion of incentive compensation is awarded in the form of RSUs (each RSU represents a right to receive one share of common stock on the vesting date).
The percentage of incentive compensation being deferred and awarded is higher for more highly compensated employees, thus increasing the aggregate value subject to the continued performance of the Firm’s stock (save for the Investor population, as to which see the “Mandatory Investor Plan” below). For 2015, Managing Directors were subject to a 35% minimum deferral irrespective of their level of compensation. Senior executives of the Firm received at least 50% (and in some cases, substantially more) of their incentive compensation in stock.
For Identified Staff, the proportion deferred is at least in line with the applicable deferral rules as defined in the regulation under which they are Identified, and may be greater for certain employees in certain circumstances.
Generally, 50% of the RSU portion of the award vests on the second anniversary of the grant date and 50% vests on the third anniversary of the grant date. Awards are subject to the Firm’s right to cancel an unvested or unexercised award (malus), and to require repayment of the value of certain shares distributed under awards already vested (clawback) in certain circumstances, as further described below.
For Identified Staff, deferred incentives may also be awarded in the form of deferred cash which vests over a 3-year period subject to terms and conditions (e.g., in respect of forfeiture and clawback) consistent with RSUs awarded in respect of the same performance year. Vesting of deferred cash awards are subject to the same rights of the Firm in relation to malus and clawback as RSUs, as set out below.
Mandatory Investor Plan (“MIP”)
The Investor population (Portfolio Managers and Research Analysts) on a selective basis are subject to a mandatory deferral of long-term incentive compensation into the funds they manage. Sales employees may also participate in the MIP on a voluntary basis. The goal of MIP is to align the Investors’ pay with that of their client’s experience and to provide a direct link between how the Investors perform to how they are paid. 100% of the Investor’s long term incentive compensation is eligible for MIP and depending on the level of compensation, with 20% or 50% required to be in invested in the specific fund they manage as determined by their respective Investment Committee member. The remaining portion of the overall amount is electable and may be treated as if invested in any of the other funds available in the plan or can take the form of RSUs.
Other non-cash benefits
No non-cash benefits are provided as part of variable compensation.
Performance measurement against financial and non-financial criteria
The Firm has a rigorous and disciplined performance management process, which actively manages the performance of its employees through the year. To that end, after setting yearly objectives, we use both financial and non-financial criteria to assess performance during the compensation cycle, and to then inform individual compensation determinations.
A balanced assessment of employees’ performance is undertaken taking account of business and financial results, risk and control outcomes, client/customer goals, and other priorities including people and leadership objectives as appropriate. Risk and control is a key focus for the Firm and there are three expectations specific to this assessment: (1) Drives a robust risk/control environment (2) Demonstrates expected risk/control behaviours and (3) Identifies, escalates and remediates issues.
These four performance categories appropriately consider short-, medium- and long-term goals that drive sustained shareholder value, while accounting for risk and control outcomes. There is no specific weighting assigned to any one factor, metric or component.
The Firm then uses three broad categories as a general guideline on performance ratings:
- Exceeds expectations
- Meets expectations
- Needs improvement
Individual business areas have the flexibility to use additional differentiation within the broad “Meets Expectations” category.
Given the diverse nature of our Firm, our evaluation of the Firm does not lend itself to a simple formulation to determine a single “score” or outcome that is indicative of overall performance. The CMDC therefore utilizes a balanced and disciplined approach so that its performance assessment reflects Firm, line of business and individual performance over a multi-year period.
To encourage a culture of risk awareness and personal accountability, we approach our incentive compensation arrangements through an integrated risk, finance, compensation and performance management framework.
Pay and performance for our senior employees is also tied to extensive risk and control features that perform the following functions:
- Maintain extensive review processes to evaluate risk and control behaviors and to hold executives accountable
- Active engagement, transparency and assessments of risk and control issues by control function heads, leaders and subject matter experts across the Firm
- Strong clawback and recovery provisions cover all forms of incentive compensation combined with formal and disciplined processes for review and determinations
We believe that disciplined risk management, compensation recovery, and repayment policies should be robust enough to deter excessive risk-taking. Risk disciplines and control forums should generate honest, fair and objective evaluations and identify individuals responsible for any risk-related events and their accountability.
Risk and control review process
Our executive compensation programme is designed to hold executives accountable, when appropriate, for material actions or items that negatively impact business performance in current or future years.
The Firm operates an enhanced risk review process that further strengthens the connection between risks, controls and compensation. The process, structured as HR Control Forums, enables senior management to evaluate relevant risk and control issues that surface in various forums (such as, Risk Committees and Business Control Committees) and, when appropriate, to initiate human resources-related remedial actions as described further below.
Decisions on HR-related impacts are made once an investigation of the individual’s association with the issue has occurred and the facts are known. HR Control Forums are conducted on a quarterly basis at various levels of the Firm and geographies including:
- Line of Business Control Forums - each line of business (“LOB”) reviews material risk and control issues related to its specific line of business and firmwide. Control Forums are also conducted for Corporate functions.
- Regional Control Forums - potential risks that may arise in a given geography (both within an LOB and across LOBs) are also identified and assessed. Issues are referred to LOB forums or escalated to the firmwide forums, as appropriate.
- Firmwide Control Forums - aggregate findings, including actions recommended from LOB/Corporate Function/Regional Forums, are reviewed and the CMDC is provided a summary of overall items and receives more detailed information on significant items.
To hold individuals responsible for taking risks inconsistent with the Firm’s risk appetite and to discourage future imprudent behavior, policies and procedures that enable us to take prompt and proportionate actions with respect to accountable individuals include:
- Reduction of annual incentive compensation (in full or in part);
- Cancellation of unvested awards (in full or in part);
- Recovery of previously paid compensation (cash and/or equity); and
- Taking appropriate employment actions (e.g., termination of employment, demotion, negative rating).
The precise actions we take with respect to accountable individuals are based on the nature of their involvement, the magnitude of the event and the impact on the Firm. A description of our recovery provisions is set out below.
Performance management reviews for Identified Staff and Tier 1 employees
In addition to the HR Control Forums, the Firm also conducts robust performance management reviews for all “material risk takers”, including Identified Staff and “Tier 1” employees identified under guidance of the Federal Reserve in the US.
Part of the robust review process includes soliciting feedback directly from risk and control professionals who independently assess employees’ risk and control behavior. The feedback from the risk and control process is a critical input into managers’ evaluations of Tier 1 / Identified Staff employee performance and compensation as it helps to identify individuals responsible for significant risk and control behavior or conduct issues, supervisory issues (e.g., failure to supervise, anticipate a material issue, or take appropriate action when the issue arose), and other risk and control related issues that impact the Firm.
Components of the enhanced performance evaluation have recently been extended to over 15,000 employees of the Firm in an effort to more formally assess risk and control behaviors. We have also implemented online training for risk and control reviewers and training for managers in order to further strengthen the process.
Code of Conduct
All staff are provided with the Firm’s Code of Conduct at hire, and ongoing, which clearly sets the Firm’s expectations for appropriate behavior, independence and avoidance of conflicts of interest. This policy also underpins the recovery and clawback provisions of the remuneration structure.
We maintain clawback/recoupment provisions on both cash incentives and equity awards, which enable us to reduce or cancel unvested awards and recover previously paid compensation in certain situations. Incentive awards are intended and expected to vest according to their terms, but strong recovery provisions permit recovery of incentive compensation awards in appropriate circumstances. The following table provides details on the extensive clawback provisions that apply to Identified Staff and Tier 1 employees.
Longstanding equity clawback provisions